Fungi 101: Unearthing Mycelium’s Mysteries
Feb 11

Fungi 101: Unearthing Mycelium’s Mysteries

Feb 11

Are you curious about mushrooms/fungi but simply don’t know a whole lot on the subject? You are not alone and don’t worry, it’s as simple as learning the basics! Once you know, you know.

When I first got started with mycology, I thought that I was just going to learn how to grow mushrooms. I was pleasantly surprised as the days, weeks, and months went on. Not only did I find that I was learning how to grow mushrooms, I was also beginning to see the world differently in the process.

From the principles of sterile procedure, to watching the mycelium grow, taking note of the environment, and paying close attention to the materials (grain and substrate), my entire perception shifted from the macro-world of everyday human life to the micro-world that is always around us yet often forgotten. Over time, this new shift in perception deepened and grew, it continues to do so as I explore mycology and take part in the community each and every day.

The Basics:

Often, when people think of fungi, images of white, root-like organisms weaving through forest soils or the unwanted mold in a damp basement come to mind. While these perceptions are not incorrect, they barely scratch the surface of what the fungal kingdom encompasses.

Fungi, the unsung heroes of our ecosystems, operate behind the scenes in a realm far more complex and essential than many might realize. These organisms aren’t just residents of the ground beneath our feet or intruders in our homes. They are fundamental architects of life on Earth, literally orchestrating the cycles of decomposition and regeneration that allow life to flourish. It’s truly extraordinary how much life on Earth owes to the fungal kingdom. Yet it quietly chugs along asking nothing of the average conscious human being.

The significance of fungi in natural ecosystems cannot be overstated. They form fundamentally important symbiotic relationships with plants, enabling nutrient uptake through mycorrhizal associations, essentially acting as a natural fertilizing agents that supports plant growth. The line between plant roots and fungi is easily blurred creating a fascinating conundrum on our perceptions of individual life.This underground network, often referred to as the "Wood Wide Web," allows for the transfer of nutrients and signaling molecules between plants, showcasing fungi's role as communicators and facilitators throughout the entire plant kingdom. We simply couldn’t have forests, prairies, etc, without fungus.

On top of playing this incredible supportive role, fungi also plays an important role as a decomposer. It takes the old and converts it to the new, creating materials and environments for new life to thrive on earth. In doing so, fungi maintain the health of our forests, gardens, and natural reserves, contributing to the overall biodiversity and stability of ecosystems all over the planet.

Beyond their ecological contributions, fungi's capacity for regeneration and resilience offers profound metaphors for understanding the interconnectedness and cyclical nature of life. Their ability to thrive in varied and often harsh environments, to break down and rebuild, and deeply unite organisms, speaks to a broader ecological and philosophical understanding of growth, decay, and renewal. The more we understand fungi, the more grounded our view of life on the planet becomes (literally and figuratively).

Fungi and Humans

Fungi's impact on human beings is profound and wide ranging. Humans and fungi have been companions for hundreds of thousands years. From key historic roles of importance to involvement in modern day processes, fungi have played and continue to play incredible parts in our lives. From culinary arts and traditional practices to groundbreaking scientific advancements and sustainable technologies, one has to wonder who lives in who’s world. Do we live in the world of fungi or does fungi live in the world of humans? Obviously, the answer to that question can be quite nuanced but it’s fun to mull over.

The relationship between humans and fungi stretches back thousands of years. Fungi, particularly yeasts, are who we have to thank for the creation of bread, beer, and wine. It’s allowed humans to take very simple ingredients and turn them into more complex staple foods and deeply cherished beverages through the magic of fermentation. This biological process, which converts sugars into alcohol and carbon dioxide, has not only provided nutritional and gastronomic benefits but also holds a special place in terms of deep cultural rituals and social traditions around the world.

In addition to these well-known examples, fungi play a central role in less widely recognized but equally fascinating fermentation practices. Kefir and kombucha, for instance, rely on symbiotic cultures of bacteria and yeasts to produce their unique flavors and health benefits. Similarly, koji fermentation, a cornerstone of Japanese cuisine, uses the mold Aspergillus oryzae to ferment soybeans for soy sauce and miso, imparting these foods with rich flavors and aromas that have captivated palates globally.

Of course, we also must discuss the cultivation and foraging of mushrooms. These areas represent a fascinating intersection of tradition, hobby, and sustainable practice that connects people directly to the fungal kingdom. Human beings have been plucking and eating mushrooms since the dawn of time. Cultivation is a bit newer in the broader span of things, however, it still has deep roots.


Today, mushroom cultivation has evolved from a niche interest into a widespread activity, appealing to hobbyists, gourmet chefs, and sustainability advocates alike. The process of growing mushrooms, whether at home or on a commercial scale, combines the art of nurturing life with the science of mycology.

Cultivators must create the perfect conditions—humidity, temperature, and substrate composition—to mimic the natural environments in which mushrooms thrive. This practice not only yields delicious and nutritious fungi for consumption but also promotes a sustainable approach to food production. By utilizing agricultural byproducts and waste materials as substrates, mushroom cultivation exemplifies a circular economy, turning potential waste into valuable food.

 Mushroom foraging, on the other hand, offers an adventurous pathway into the heart of the wild, where the diversity of fungi can be explored in their natural habitats. This activity requires a blend of knowledge, respect for nature, and a keen eye, as foragers learn to identify edible species amidst the vast array of fungi that populate forests, meadows, and fields. I’ve found the experience of foraging for mushrooms to be deeply primal. It often puts me into a “child like” space as it takes me back to the times as a kid when I entertained myself by simply walking around outside and looking at the things on the ground. Cooking and enjoying the tastes of these foraged mushrooms? That could be a whole other article. Don’t even get me started!


Getting Started with Mycology


One of the best ways to start your mycological journey is by connecting with others who share your interests. Local mycological societies and clubs can be found in most major cities. They can offer a wealth of knowledge and activities, including field trips, foraging expeditions, cultivation workshops, and guest lectures. There are also many online communities open to the public! These communities are invaluable resources for learning mushroom identification, ethical foraging practices, and cultivation techniques. They also provide a platform for sharing experiences and discoveries, making mycology a shared journey. Colorado Mycology Company has a burgeoning Facebook group that can be found here.

I encourage you to join and reach out to fellow enthusiasts!

Foraging for wild mushrooms is also a rewarding activity that combines outdoor adventure with the thrill of discovery. However, it's crucial to approach foraging with respect for nature and an emphasis on safety. Make sure that you go with a reputable guide or have at least armed yourself with some basic knowledge on what to look out for to keep yourself safe.

Home cultivation of edible mushrooms is an engaging way to bring mycology into your daily life. It can be as simple or complex as you choose, from growing mushrooms in a small indoor kit to managing a larger outdoor operation. Many states have legalized psychedelic mushrooms as well; these are great for those interested in cultivation (and psychedelic mushrooms). Please make sure to understand and follow your local laws and regulations wherever you may be.

For beginners, mushroom growing kits are a fantastic way to learn the basics. These kits and any needed supplies can be found on our website. The only thing you’ll need are spores or a culture, easily obtained by other retailers who focus on genetics! For instance, our friends at Colorado Cultures are a great source if you’re in state.

As you gain confidence, you might consider more DIY approaches, such as using sterilized grain and pasteurized substrates for cultivating a wider variety of mushrooms in various conditions and setups of your choice.

Explore the cultivation of different mushroom species to discover which ones you enjoy growing and consuming the most. Popular choices include oyster mushrooms, shiitake, and lion's mane, and psilocybin each with unique growing conditions and culinary uses.

Citizen science projects offer a way to contribute to scientific knowledge while engaging with the mycological community. Projects such as iNaturalist or Mushroom Observer allow you to share observations of fungi from your local area, helping to map and document fungal biodiversity. The subreddit Experimyco is also a great online forum to participate in.

Resources for Further Learning and Exploration

The journey into mycology is lifelong, with endless opportunities for learning and exploration. Beyond joining societies and engaging in hands-on activities, consider diving into the vast array of books, online courses, and forums dedicated to mycology. Websites like, the Mycological Society of America, and even local extension services can provide in-depth information and support your growing interest.

Some of the most recommended books are:

“Radical Mycology” by Peter McCoy

“Growing Gourmet and Medicinal Mushrooms” by Paul Stamets

“Mycelium Running” by Paul Statements

Whether you're intrigued by the ecological roles of fungi, passionate about cultivating mushrooms, or drawn to the art of foraging, there's a place for you in the world of mycology. By taking advantage of the resources and communities available, you can embark on a fulfilling journey that connects you more deeply with the natural world and the fascinating kingdom of fungi.


Our journey through the kingdom of fungi reveals a world teeming with life, complexity, and beauty. It underscores the importance of fungi in sustaining life on our planet and invites us to reflect on our relationship with nature. As we learn to appreciate and understand these remarkable organisms, we open ourselves to the wonders of the natural world and the potential for positive impact through conservation and sustainable living.


As we come to the end of our exploration into the enchanting world of fungi, it's clear that these remarkable organisms are not just a fascinating subject of study but also pivotal players in the tapestry of life on this beautiful planet Earth. Fungi's roles as decomposers, symbionts, and innovators in human culture and industry highlight their integral place in our world's past, present, and future. Through the art of mushroom cultivation and foraging, even the application of mycology in biotechnology, their silent yet critical contribution to ecosystems offer us a new lens to view the interconnectedness of all life.

This journey into mycology is more than an academic pursuit; it's a call to recognize and respect the natural world's complexity and beauty. It invites us to engage with our environment thoughtfully and sustainably, understanding that our actions have a profound impact on the delicate balance of life. By fostering a deeper connection with fungi, we not only enrich our own lives but also contribute to the broader conversation about conservation, sustainability, and our place within the natural world.

As you embark on or continue your mycological journey, remember that each step into the world of fungi is a step toward a deeper understanding of the planet we share. The key takeaways from this exploration underscore the importance of fungi in our ecosystems, their unique biological characteristics, and their vast potential in shaping a sustainable future. Let these insights inspire you to learn more, explore responsibly, and share your knowledge with others.

Key Takeaways:

  • Fungi's Unique Kingdom: Recognize fungi as a unique, distinct kingdom of life, essential for understanding the biodiversity and complexity of ecosystems.
  • Ecological Pioneers: Appreciate fungi's critical roles in decomposition, nutrient cycling, and forming symbiotic relationships, which underscore their importance in sustaining life.
  • Cultural and Industrial Impact: Acknowledge the profound influence of fungi on human culture, from traditional fermentation practices to groundbreaking contributions in medicine and sustainable technology.
  • The Joy of Mycology: Discover the rewards of engaging with fungi through cultivation, foraging, and participating in mycological communities, fostering a tangible connection with the natural world.
  • Stewards of the Earth: Embrace the role of fungi in promoting environmental sustainability and conservation, highlighting the importance of protecting these invaluable organisms and their habitats.